World War II in Soviet
This is an HONORS ADJUNCT course.
. . the overwhelming brunt of the Nazi occupation between 1941 and 1944,
as of the devastating Soviet reoccupation, was borne not by Russia but by the
Baltic States, by Belarus, by Poland, and above all by Ukraine."
Professor Jeffrey Burds
Office: 269 Holmes Hall
Telephone: (617) 373-2079
This lecture and discussion course is devoted to the study of
Regular class attendance is required. Any student with five or more unauthorized absences will fail the course.
Final grades will be calculated with attention to the following formula:
• Regular class attendance: 10 percent
• Half-page journal entries on each film: two evening films, an hour of German news reels; and 10 hours of the documentary film, Russia’s War: 10 percent
• Midterm bluebook examination and 5-7 page takehome paper: 40 percent
• Second midterm bluebook examination and 5-7 page takehome paper: 40 percent
All students must complete the midterm examination and paper. All Honors Adjunct students are expected to prepare an alternative paper 10-page and oral examination to replace the final examination and paper. This option is available for any student who scores a B or above on the midterm. Some students will be invited to make in-class presentations for extra credit.
I emphasize: attendance is a required part of this class. Note that any student with five or more unexcused absences may be either cut from the roster or will automatically fail this course.
All books are available in low-cost paperback editions at Barnes & Nobles bookstore, and are on Closed Reserve in Snell Library.
Christopher Browning, Ordinary Men: Reserve Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland (New York: HarperCollins, 1993), paper
Alan Clark, Barbarossa: The Russian-German Conflict, 1941-1945 (New York: Quill, 1965-1985), paper
Jan T. Gross, Neighbors: The Destruction of the Jewish Community in
Waldemar Lotnik, Nine Lives: Ethnic Conflict in the Polish-Ukrainian Borderlands (London: Serif, 1999), paper
Alaine Polcz, A
Alfred-Maurice de Zayas, A Terrible Revenge: The Ethnic Cleansing of the East European Germans, 1944-1950 (New York: St. Martins Press, 1993), paper
In addition, students are expected to read and study short handouts to be distributed in class. All handouts and notes for most lectures and/or discussions will be available for review on the course WEB page. The WEB page also includes references and links to relevant materials which may assist students writing papers.
Most Monday classes will be
devoted to screening all ten hours of the documentary film series:
Bibliography An extensive list of useful readings and materials.
Check out summaries of the latest research in Soviet Military Studies [Frank Cass Publishing]
Check out the Journal of Slavic Military Studies [David M. Glantz, ed.]
Check out the U.S. Army Homepage, with extensive on-line monographs concnering all aspects of the Soviet military, World War II, Soviet partisans, etc.
Connect to the National Archives
Get insight from The
Waffen-SS Order of Battle provides indispensable reference data on SS units, both German and non-German
A Russian woman and child under attack by Nazi bayonets: "Save us!" This was one of the most memorable images of the Soviet home front in World War II
Week 1 Introduction /Contexts
Wednesday, January 7. Introduction. The Problem of Historical Memory
Thursday, January 8. NO CLASS MEETING
Please read two short selections:
Jeffrey Burds, "Ethnicity,
Memory, and Violence: Reflections on Special Problems in Soviet & East
European Archives," in William Rosenberg and Francis Blouin, eds.Archives and
Social Memory: Institutions, Practices, and Political Cultures (
Piotr Wrobel, "Double Memory: Poles and Jews After the Holocaust," East European Politics and Societies Volume 11, Number 3 (Fall 1997), 560-574.
Week 2 Antecedents
Monday, January 12. Antecedents: The International Geopolitical Context in the 1930s
Wednesday, January 14. August 1939 to June 1941; The Soviet Occupation of Eastern Poland; The Winter War in Finland
The Chamberlain-Hitler Collusion
Evening Film, 6:00 p.m. in 90 Snell Library.
Dinner will be provided.
FILM: Come & See (Elem Klimov, USSR, 1985)
Described as “142 minutes of raw emotion”, this film won top prizes at the Moscow and Venice film festivals in 1985. The story is based on writer Aleksandr Adamovich’s WWII memoirs of SS reprisals against partisans. Set in occupied Belorussia in 1943, the film follows a raw teenager into the swamps and forests of the Western border provinces, where he undergoes a hell of atrocities, transformed by his hatred for the fascists as he tries to survive the carnage of war. Russian with English subtitles. 142 minutes.
Thursday, January 15. Soviet Espionage & the Barbarossa Calamity
MAP: Soviet Military Intelligence Analysis of the Concentration of German Forces on the Eve of War
MAP: Disposition of Soviet & German Forces on the Soviet western borders on the eve of invasion
Documents: Soviet Espionage Communiqués On the Eve of Barbarossa
READ: Alan Clark, Barbarossa: The Russian-German Conflict, 1941-1945, pp. 3-113.
Gabriel Gorodetsky, Grand Delusion: Stalin and the German Invasion of Russia (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999).
Clement Leibovitz, Alvin Finkel, Christopher Hitchens, In Our Time: The Chamberlain-Hitler Collusion (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1998).
Bruce W. Menning, ed. At the Threshold of War: The Soviet High Command in 1941 in Russian Studies in History: A Journal of Translations Volume 36, Number 3 (Winter 1997-98), pp. 2-93.
Albert Resis, "The Fall of Litvinov: Harbinger of the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact," Europe-Asia Studies Volume 52, Number (January 2000): 33-56.
Cynthia Roberts, "Planning for War: the Red Army and the Catastrophe of 1941," Europe-Asia Studies Volume 47, Number 8 (December 1995) pp. 1293-1326.
Geoffrey Roberts, "The Soviet Decision for a Pact with Nazi Germany," Soviet Studies Volume 44, Number 1 (1992): 57-80.
Week 3 Operation Barbarossa and the German Invasion of Soviet Eastern Europe
Monday, January 19. Martin Luther King, Jr. Day. University closed.
Wednesday, January 21. OPERATION BARBAROSSA: The German Invasion of Russia, 22 June 1941
Handout: Map1, Operation Barbarossa
Thursday, January 22. FILM: German News Reels, July 1941
READ: Alan Clark, Barbarossa: The Russian-German Conflict, 1941-1945, pp. 114-219.
K. I. Bukov, "The Anxious October of '41", Russian Studies in History Volume 31, No. 4 (Spring 1993): 30-48.
John Erickson, “The Soviet Response to Surprise Attack: Three Directives, 22 June 1941,” Soviet Studies Volume 23, Number 4 (April 1972): 519-553.
Mark Harrison, Accounting for War: Soviet Production, Employment, and the Defence Burden, 1940-1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
Week 4 After Stalingrad: The Soviet Drive to Berlin
Monday, January 26. FILM: Russia’s War, Part 1
Wednesday, January 28. The School of Hate
Document: Hitler's Commissar Order, dated
Molotov's Note on German Atrocities in Occupied Soviet Territory (January 6, 1942)
Ilya Ehrenberg, "The Justification of Hatred" (Summer 1942)
Follow the progress of the invasion through a
German war album:
Otto Willnauer 3rd Company, 7th PanzerJaeger Battalion [toward
Thursday, January 29. Discussion:
READ: Alan Clark, Barbarossa:
The Russian-German Conflict, 1941-1945, pp. 220-302.
* Michael Cherniavsky, "Corporal Hitler, General Winter and the Russian Peasant," The Yale Review Volume LI, Number 4 (Summer 1962), pp. 547-558.
World War II in Ukraine [A Photo Essay]
WEB Guide: SS Atrocities in Wartime
Week 5 Occupation Policies
Monday, February 2. FILM: Russia’s War, Part 2
Tuesday, February 4. Discussion: After
READ: Alan Clark, Barbarossa: The Russian-German Conflict, 1941-1945, pp. 303-465.
Handouts: Map3 of
credit: Raising the Hammer and Sickle over the Reichstag,
2 May, 1945 by Yevgeni Khaldey
Antony Beevor, Stalingrad: The Fateful Siege, 1942-1943(New York: Penguin Press, 1999).
William C. Fletcher, "The Soviet Bible Belt: World War II's Effects on Religion," in Susan J. Linz, editor. The Impact of World War II on the Soviet Union (Rowman & Allanheld, 1985), pp. 129-156.
Leonidas E. Hill, "The Published Political Memoirs of Leading Nazis, 1933-45," in George Egerton, ed. Political Memoir: Essays on the Politics of Memory (London: Frank Cass, 1994), pp. 225-241.
Daniel Peris : "'God is Now On Our Side': The Religious Revival on Unoccupied Soviet Territory during World War II," Kritika, Volume 1, Number 1 (1999): 97-118.
Thursday, February 5. Summer 1941
DOCUMENT: Signals from Moscow
Of Related Interest
Jan Gross, Revolution from Abroad: The
Soviet Conquest of
Terry Martin, "The Origins of Soviet Ethnic Cleansing," The Journal of Modern History Volume 70, Number 4 (December 1998): 813-861.
Benjamin B. Fischer, "The Katyn Controversy: Stalin's Killing Field," Studies in Intelligence (Winter 1999-2000) [CIA's Declassified Journal]
Victor Zaslavsky, "The Katyn Massacre: 'Class Cleansing' as Totalitarian Praxis," Telos Issue 114 (Winter 1999) 67-107.
Memorandum on NKVD letterhead from L. Beria to "Comrade Stalin" proposing to execute captured Polish officers, soldiers, and other prisoners by shooting. Stalin's handwritten signature appears on top, followed by signatures of Politburo members K. Voroshilov, V. Molotov, and A. Mikoyan. Signatures in left margin are M. Kalinin and L. Kaganovich, both favoring execution
Week 6 Holocaust : The Politics of Ethnic Cleansing
Monday, February 9. FILM: Russia’s War, Part 3
Wednesday, February 11. The Holocaust in Central & Eastern Europe
HANDOUT: Holocaust Data
Evening Film, in 90 Snell Library.
FILM: Angry Harvest (Agnieszka
Holland, Germany, 1986)
Acclaimed Polish film director Agnieszka Holland’s Academy-Award nominated film is a powerful emotional drama set during the German occupation of southeastern Poland. Following a raid on the Jewish ghetto, a young, beautiful Jewish woman manages to escape a sealed train car while en route to a Nazi death camp. A sexually repressed Polish Catholic farmer discovers her hiding in a nearby forest, and saves the woman, by then delirious from hunger and fever. This brilliant psychological drama follows the evolution of their relationship between inter-dependent love and ubiquitous terror. A tour-de-force of acting and directing, the film stars Armin Mueller-Stahl, Elisabeth Trissenaar, Wojtech Pszoniak. German with English subtitles. 102 minutes.
Thursday, February 12. Discussion: Discussion: Ostpolitik: The German Occupation Zone
READ: Jan T. Gross, Neighbors: The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001).
Alexander B. Rossino, "Polish 'Neighbors' and German Invaders: Contextualizing Anti-Jewish Violence in the Bialystok District during the Opening Weeks of Operation Barbarossa," Forthcoming in Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry, Volume 16 (2003).
CONTROVERSY: The Reaction to "Neighbors" in
Anna Bikont, "Scene fron Jedwabne," Yad Vashem Studies (2002) A Polish Jew's discussion of the controversy
Of Related Interest on the Problem of Wartime Collaboration
Alexander Dallin, German Rule in Russia,
1941-1945: A Study of Occupation Policies,
pp. 84-167, 305-319, 376-408. [View on-line in PDF format]
Martin Dean, Collaboration in
the Holocaust: Crimes of the Local Police in
Collaboration in the Holocaust in its entirety.
John Erickson, "Nazi Posters in Wartime Russia," History Today, Sep94, Vol. 44 Issue 9, pp. 14-19.
Frank Gordon, Latvians and Jews Between Germany and Russia Translated by Vaira Puķīte and Jānis Straubergs (Stockholm: Memento, 1990)
Jan Tomasz Gross, Polish Society Under German Occupation: The Generalgouvernement, 1939-1944 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979).
Zygmunt Klukowski, Diary from the Years of Occupation, 1939-44 (University of Illinois Press, 1993).
Excerpts from Klukowski's diary
Wolodomyr Kosyk, The Third Reich and Ukraine (New York: Peter Lang Publishers, 1993), pp. 185-315. Documents on pp. 546-548, 548-549, 550, 554 [View on-line in PDF format]
Paula Kovalevskis, Oskars Noritis and Mikelis Goppers, eds., Latvia: Year of Horror
[English translation of a German-prepared collection
of photos and documents covering the communist rule in
Richard Rhodes, Masters of Death: The SS-Einsatzgruppen and the Invention of the Holocaust (New York: Knopf, 2002)
Oleg Zarubinsky, "Collaboration of the Population
Nuremburg War Crimes Tribunal Proceedings [Complete series on line]
Week 7 Wehrmacht War Crimes
Monday, February 16. President's Day. No class.
Wednesday, February 18. DISCUSSION: Ordinary Men
READ: Christopher Browning, Ordinary Men: Reserve Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland (Entire)
READ: Koineh Schacter-Rogel, "A Letter from Ukraine," published by the Concordia University Chair in Canadian Jewish Studies, 2001.
This eyewitness report describes the first 24 hours of the German occupation in Tshudin, Ukraine.
Class, please review the Wannsee
Protocol Museum Site, birthplace of the Final Solution on
Follow the German Army's brutality in the East at War of Annihilation: War Crimes of the Wehrmacht, 1941-1944
Judith Levin and Daniel Uziel, Ordinary Men, Extraordinary Photos, Yad Vashem Studies, 2002. Studies German soldiers' photo albums as a source about the mentalité of perpetrators of atrocities
Visit the Gallery of Holocaust Images prepared for an on-line Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust.
Visit an on-line Photographic Exhibition of the Holocaust.
Yitzak Arad, Shmuel Krakowski and Shmuel Spector, editors. The Einsatzgruppen Reports (New York: Holocaust Library. 1989). [Includes additional documents]
Catherine A. Bernard, "tell him that I . . . . Women Writing the Holocaust," Stanford University, 1995.
Richard Breitman, "Himmler's Police Auxiliaries in the Occupied Soviet
Christine Damski/Sara Rozen
Story -- Jewish Rescue in
Follow more stories
in Ellen Land-Webber, To Save a Life:
Stories of Holocaust Rescue (
Daniel Goldgahen, Hitler's Willing Executioners, and review by Raul Hilberg, "The Goldhagen Phenomenon"
Simon Wiesenthal Center Annual, Volumes 1-6 (
Witnesses--On Line Testimonies of Holocaust Survivors, Liberators & Other Documents
Thursday, February 19. Midterm.
Hints on preparing for the blue book exam
The midterm will consist of a bluebook examination in class, and
a takehome paper of 4-6 pages based on course materials.
Week 8 Partisans & Collaborators
Monday, February 23. FILM: Russia’s War, Part 4
Wednesday, February 25. The Soviet Partisan Movement
Of Related Interest
Photo: Belorussian Partisans, 1944
Alexander Dallin, German Rule in Russia, 1941-1945: A
Study of Occupation Policies,
pp. 497-636. [View on-line in PDF format]
Leonid D. Grenkevich, Soviet Partisan Movements: A Critical Historiographical Analysis (London: Frank Cass, 1999).
Rear Area Security in Russia: The Soviet Second Front Behind the German Front (Washington, DC: Department of the Army, 1951).
[From the German War Report Series based on U.S. interrogations of German officers from the Eastern Front]
Major Claude R. Sasso, Soviet
Night Operations in World War II (
Pavel Sudoplatov, Special Tasks: The Memoirs of an Unwanted Witness -- A Soviet Spymaster (Boston: Little, Brown, & Co., 1994-1995). Revised Edition.
Thursday February 26. German Anti-Partisan Operations
Truman Anderson, "Incident
at Baranivka: German Reprisals and the Soviet
Partisan Movement in
Truman Anderson, “Germans, Ukrainians and Jews: Ethnic Politics in Heeresgebiet Süd, June-December 1941,” War in History Volume 7, Number 3 (2000): 325-351.
Ben Shepherd, Blood on the Snow: The German Army and the Soviet Partisan War, 1941-1944 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004).
Ben Shepherd, “Hawks, Doves
and Tote Zonen:
A Wehrmacht Security Division in
SPRING BREAK BEGINS Sunday, February 29, and
ends Sunday March 7
Week 9 War within the War: World War II as a Civil War
Monday, March 8. FILM: Russia’s War, Part 5
Wednesday, March 10. Intelligence and Counter-Intelligence on the Eastern Front
READ: Perry Biddiscombe, "Unternehmen Zeppelin: The Deployment of SS Saboteurs and Spies in the Soviet Union, 1942-1945," Europe-Asia Studies Volume 52, Number 6 (2000): 1115-1142.
Perry Biddiscombe, "The problem
with glass houses The Soviet recruitment and deployment of SS men as spies and
saboteurs," Intelligence and
National Security (
D. Karov, Underground Activity in
Robert W. Stephan, Stalin's
Secret War: Soviet Counterintelligence against the Nazis, 1941-1945 (
Thursday, March 11. The Roots of Ethnic Nationalism in Soviet Eastern Europe
READ: Waldemar Lotnik, Nine Lives: Ethnic Conflict in the Polish-Ukrainian Borderlands (London: Serif, 1999), pp. 7-206.
Timothy Snyder, "'To
Resolve the Ukrainian Question Once and For All': The Ethnic Cleansing
of Ukrainians in
Timothy Snyder, "The Causes of Ukrainian-Polish Ethnic Cleansing 1943,” Past and Present Number 179 (May 2003): 197-234.
For More Information
Violence and Self-Identity: Diagnostic Criteria for Evaluating Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder as identified by Judith Herman, M.D. Trauma & Recovery (New York: Basic Books, 1992). Herman identifies trauma as an overlooked epidemic.
Of Related Interest on Postwar Ethnic Violence
Zygmunt Klukowski, Red Shadow: a physician's memoir of the Soviet occupation of Eastern Poland, 1944-1956 (Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., 1997).
J. Otto Pohl, Ethnic Cleansing in the USSR, 1937-1949 (Greenwood Publishing, 1999).
Week 10 Volksdeutsche: East European Reprisals Against Ethnic Germans
Monday, March 15. FILM: Russia’s War, Part 5
Wednesday, March 17. Ethnic Cleansing after the Holocaust
Thursday, March 18. FILM: Russia’s War, Part 6
Of Related Interest
Istvan Deak, Jan Gross, and Tony Judt, eds. The Politics of Retribution in Europe (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000).
Erich Anton Helfert, Valley of the Shadow: After the Turmoil, My Heart Cries No More (Creative Arts Books, 1997). [Chronicles the fate of a Sudeten German family]
John Sack, An Eye for an Eye: The Untold Story of Jewish Revenge against Germans in 1945 (New York: Basic Books, 1993, 1995).
Bozena Szaynok, "The Jewish Pogrom in Kielce, July 1946 -- New Evidence," Intermarium Volume I, Number 3,
Kielce - July 4, 1946: Background, Context and Events, a Collective Work (Toronto and Chicago: Polish Educational Foundation in North America, 1996).
Week 11 Retribution
Monday, March 22. DISCUSSION. Alfred-Maurice de Zayas, A Terrible Revenge: The Ethnic Cleansing of the East European Germans, 1944-1950 (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993).
Wednesday, March 24. Postwar Retribution
Thursday, March 25. DISCUSSION
READ: * Alaine Polcz, A Wartime Memoir: Hungary 1944-1945 (Budapest: Corvina, 1991-1997).
And view the powerpoint
slide show on
Soviet Women & Nazi Violence in World War II: Women as Hero-Victims
Visit the WEBsite of Poland's Institute of National Remembrance, the Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes Against the Polish Nation
Jeffrey Burds, "Gender and Policing in Soviet West Ukraine, 1944-1948, " in The Role of the Political Police in the Soviet Union, 1918-1956, edited by Terry Martin and Andreas Graziosi, in a special double issue on the history of the Soviet political police, Cahiers du Monde Russe et Soviétique April-September 2001).
Lucille Eichengreen, From Ashes to Life: My Memories of the Holocaust (Mercury House, 1994).
Marlene Epp, "The Memory of Violence: Soviet and East European Mennonite Refugees and Rape in the Second World War" Journal of Women's History, 9 (1), Spring 1997.
Norman Naimark, "Soviet Soldiers, German Women and the Problem of Rape." The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945-1949 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press,1995), 69-140.
Agate Nesaule, A Woman in Amber: Healing the Trauma of War and Exile (New York: Penguin Books, 1995).
Vieda Skultans, The Testimony of Lives: Narrative and Memory in Post-Soviet Latvia (London and New York: Routledge, 1998).
Week 12 The Soviet Struggle Against Banditry
Monday, March 29. FILM: Russia’s War, Part 7
Wednesday, March 31. The Soviet Struggle Against Banditry
* Jeffrey Burds, “The Struggle
Against Banditry in the USSR, 1944-1953,” Social History—Yearbook 2000
READ: * Jeffrey Burds, "AGENTURA: Soviet
Informants' Networks & the Ukrainian Rebel Underground in
READ: * Jeffrey Burds, "Gender and Policing in Soviet West Ukraine, 1944-1948," Cahiers du Monde Russe Volume 42, Numbers 2-4 (April-December 2001).
Thursday, April 1. World War II and the Origins of the Cold War
HANDOUT: The Alperovitz Thesis
Photo: Soviet MVD Special Tasks Unit near Stanyslaviv, Ukraine, early 1950s
Very short selections from Gar Alperovitz, Atomic Diplomacy: Hiroshima & Potsdam (The Use of the Atomic Bomb and the American Confrontation with Soviet Power) (Boulder, Colorado: Pluto Press, 1994). Second Expanded Edition.
New Documents: 'OPERATION
UNTHINKABLE': Churchill's Plan to Launch a Third World War Against
Week 13 Origins of the Cold War
Monday, April 5. FILM: Russia’s War, Part 8
Wednesday, April 7. BLOWBACK
READ: * Alfred J. Rieber, "Civil Wars in
the Soviet Union," Kritika:
Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 4(1): 129–62, Winter 2003.
* Jeffrey Burds, "The Early Cold War in Soviet West Ukraine," No. 1505 in The Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, 2001).
Of Related Interest
The Anti-Soviet Resistance in the Baltic States (Vilnius: Du Ka Press, 1999).
Juozas Daumantas, Fighters for Freedom: Lithuanian Partisans Versus the USSR (1944-1947). Second Edition. (Toronto, 1975). [Fascinating first-hand account by Lithuanian anti-Soviet guerrilla leader, originally written in 1948. The name is a pseudonym for Juozas Luksa, who escaped to the West in December 1947 and returned to rejoin the Lithuanian Freedom Army in 1950. He was captured and executed by the NKVD in October 1951.]
Stephen Dorril, MI6: Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service (2000).
Peter Grose, Operation Rollback: America's Secret War Behind the Iron Curtain (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Company, 2000).
Mart Laar, War in the Woods: Estonia's Struggle for Survival, 1944-56 (Washington, D.C.: Compass Press, 1992).
Gregory Mitrovich, Undermining the Kremlin: America's Strategy to Subvert the Soviet Bloc, 1947-1956 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000).
Amir Weiner, "Nature, Nurture, and Memory in a Socialist Utopia: Delineating the Soviet Socio-Ethnic Body in the Age of Socialism," American Historical Review Volume 104, Number 4 (October 1999): 1114-1155.
The Origins of Containment: George Kennan's "Long Telegram" (Moscow-to-Washington) (February 22, 1946)
of Peace": Audio and Transcript of Churchill's Speech at
The Novikov Telegram: Soviet Ambassador in
NSC-68 -- The Foundations of American Cold War Policy
Of Related Interest
Cold War/International History Project WEBsite
Cold War Espionage on CNN.COM
Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb (New York: Random House, 1996).
James Jay Carafano, "Mobilizing
Fifty Years of Deceit and Self-Deception [An Exhibition at
Kenneth M. Jensen, ed. The
Origins of the Cold War: The Novikov, Kennan and Roberts "Long
Telegrams" of 1946. 1993 revised edition (US Inst of Peace, 1993).
Christopher Simpson, Blowback: America's Recruitment of Nazis and Its Effects on the Cold War (New York: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1988), pp. 3-11, 138-175, 264-290.
Presidential Papers. (University Publications of America) Vol. 1 The
Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb in
Thursday, April 8. FILM: Russia’s War, Part 9
Monday, April 12. FILM: Russia’s War, Part 10
Wednesday, April 14. Second Midterm examination.
Hints on preparing for the blue book exam
There is no final examination in this
All work must be submitted by 3:00 pm Wednesday, April 14.